SEXUAL DISEASES – AIDS

MEGHANOI– Sexually transmitted diseases & AIDS
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that can be transferred from one person to another through any type of sexual contact. Sexual contact includes kissing, oral-genital contact, vaginal and anal intercourse. The infection can be transmitted from contact with the ulcer which teems with spirochetes. Similarly, if the ulcer is in the mouth, merely kissing the infected individual can spread the infection.

SYPHILIS:
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that has been around for centuries and is usually spread during sexual contact, including kissing or oral sex. Syphilis is an infection that is caused by a microscopic organism called Treponema pallidum. The disease can go through three active stages and a latent (inactive) stage.
Primary stage of syphilis, a painless ulcer (the chancre) appears in a sexually-exposed area, such as the penis, mouth, or anal region. Sometimes, multiple ulcers may be present. Painless, swollen glands (lymph nodes) are often present in the region of the chancre, such as in the groin of patients with penile lesions. The ulcer can go away on its own after 3 to 6 weeks, only for the disease to recur months later as secondary syphilis if the primary stage is not treated.
Secondary syphilis is a systemic stage of the disease, meaning that it can involve various organ systems of the body. In this stage, therefore, patients can initially develop a skin rash that does not itch. Sometimes the skin rash of secondary syphilis is very faint and hard to recognize; it may not even be noticed in all cases. In addition, secondary syphilis can involve virtually any part of the body, causing, for example, swollen glands (lymph nodes) in the groin, neck, and arm pits, arthritis, kidney problems, and liver abnormalities. Subsequent to secondary syphilis, some patients will continue to carry the infection in their body without symptoms. This is the so-called latent stage of the infection. Then, with or without a latent stage, which can last as long as twenty or more years, the third (tertiary) stage of the disease can develop.

Tertiary syphilis is also a systemic stage of the disease and can cause a variety of problems throughout the body including:
(1) Abnormal bulging of the large vessel leaving the heart (the aorta), resulting in heart problems;
(2) The development of large nodules (gummas) in various organs of the body;
(3) Infection of the brain, causing a stroke, mental confusion, meningitis (type of brain infection), problems with sensation, or weakness (neurosyphilis);
(4) Involvement of the eyes leading to sight deterioration; or
(5) Involvement of the ears resulting in deafness. The damage sustained by the body during the tertiary stage of syphilis is severe and can even be fatal.
Tests used to screen for syphilis include:
• Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test.
• Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test: detects syphilis antibodies.
• Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test.
Syphilis is potentially much more serious than gonorrhea! The blood-screening tests most often used to detect evidence of syphilis are the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) test and the RPR (rapid plasma reagin) test. Positive VDRL reaction is an important cause of perinatal mortality due to infection. Anyone who has been sexually exposed to an individual with the ulcer or skin rash of syphilis can potentially become infected.

Uniqueness of Our Treatment:
The decision regarding treatment should be based upon whether the person has any symptoms of primary, secondary, or tertiary syphilis and the results of their blood tests for syphilis. In the secondary and tertiary stages, treatment is longer more than 12 months, but can be cured. Systematic investigations have been carried out to determine beneficial effects in treatment of disease. Therefore, it is important that people being treated for syphilis have periodic blood tests to check that the infectious agent has been completely destroyed.

 

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